# How to calculate the deformation?

### How to calculate the deformation?

Simple tension or compression The constant normal stress in the section is worth σ = F/S and the deformation is worth ε = F/ES.

### How to draw a Deformed?

To learn how to quickly draw the look of a distorted of a beam or more generally of any structure. The idea is simple: transform the structure into a mechanism by adding ball joints where the forces are applied (including support reaction forces).

### What is Plastic Deformation?

Plastic deformation is the irreversible deformation of an object; it occurs by a rearrangement of the relative position of the atoms, or more generally of the constituent elements of the material. When a part is stressed (it is pulled, compressed, twisted, etc.

### How to quantify plastic deformation resulting from stress?

In the resistance of materials, it may be necessary to quantify the plastic deformation resulting from a stress. Indeed, in certain fields, one prohibits any plastic deformation, one attaches then so that at no time the constraint exceeds the limit of elasticity; for this, a safety factor is often applied.

### What are the different types of plastic deformation forming?

Types of forming by plastic deformation There are two types of forming by plastic deformation: Forming by cold plastic deformation, carried out at room temperature, and forming by hot plastic deformation, requiring a heat input. Under the effect of heat, the metal undergoes thermal expansion and deforms.

### How does the deformation propagate?

From a microscopic point of view, the deformation propagates through defects, dislocations, which can be blocked or slowed down by various defects (foreign atoms, grain boundaries, other dislocations), with a phenomenon of work hardening (hardening ).