# How to calculate the PAPS?

### How to calculate the PAPS?

The PAPS is calculated by the formula PAPS = 4V2 + POD, where V is the peak tricuspid insufficiency flow velocity measured in continuous Doppler, and POD is an estimate of the average right atrial pressure (Figure 1).

### What is normal lung pressure?

The level of lung pressure is an important clinical element for assessing the severity and tolerance of cardiac damage. Usually in a population of healthy subjects, the pressure arterial pulmonary systolic (PAPs) normal is less than 30 mmHg.

### How to measure cardiac output?

Measure by doppler cardiac This is the simplest and most widely used method: debit is measured by multiplying the time-velocity integral (area under the continuous Doppler curve) of the aortic flow by the area of ​​the outflow orifice calculated in two-dimensional imaging.

### What is the relationship between DC FC and ves?

cardiac output is the result of the integrated functioning of the cardiovascular system. VS’is the amount of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute. He is equal to the product of the volume ejected with each beat (VES) by heart rate.

### How is an Eto?

I’TEE requires the introduction of a specific ultrasound probe into the esophagus through the mouth and pharynx. It is performed in our center under brief general anesthesia requiring a pre-anaesthetic consultation a few days before the examination and that you be well on an empty stomach.

### What are the symptoms of pulmonary hypertension?

From symptoms associated withpulmonary hypertensionlet us mention:

• shortness of breath on exertion – when climbing stairs or during everyday activities.
• severe fatigue.
• dizziness or fainting.
• chest pain.
• swelling in the ankles, legs or abdomen.

### How to measure VES?

the VES = VTIAo X (πD2/4), with the DC which will be equal to this value multiplied by the heart rate during the measure (figure 1).

### What is resting cardiac output?

Her value to rest is about 5 liters per minute, but depends on the size and build of the subject; during intense effort, it can reach 40 liters per minute.

### What is the relationship between heart rate and blood pressure?

the link between a cardiac frequency high and hypertension arterial is found in most studies. He is established that this association is secondary to an overactive nervous system through increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone [10].

### What is normal cardiac output?

normally equal to 4 to 6 l/min.

### Which anesthesia for an Eto?

The examination is carried out under anesthesia generally brief. A pre-consultationanesthesia dedicated must therefore be carried out a few days before the date of the procedure, except in an emergency. You must be on an empty stomach (food, drink, cigarette) within 6 hours of the exam.

### How is a throat ultrasound performed?

How’s it going ? The exam to takes place in a hospital environment, in the presence of a nurse and a cardiologist. You are lying on a table, you wear a blouse. You will be required to gargle with lidocaine gel and be given a spray of numbing spray in your throat.