Why is DNA transcribed into messenger RNA?
Through the messenger RNA, the cell can express part of the genetic information contained in its genes and manufacture the proteins necessary for its functioning. The transcript is a highly regulated process, in particular allowing cells to activate genes according to external stimuli.
It has long been thought that theRNA was a copy loyal to theDNA of which he is transcribed. This doesis not the case ! In principle, the transcription of theDNA (in yellow) in RNA (in orange) associates nucleotides A, T, C and G with nucleotides U, A, G and C respectively.
only one strand of DNA is transcribedvs’is i.e. serves as a model for the polymerization of ribonucleotides. Indeed, only one strand of DNA in a given place makes sense in terms of protein c’is why we usually write a sequence ofDNA in the form of a succession of 5′ to 3′ bases.
DNA sequencing, particularly of sex cells, has made it possible to understand the genetic modifications causing a disturbance in fertility.
The first two DNA sequencing techniques, that of Maxam-Gilbert and that of Sanger were described in 1977. It should be noted that the first two publications reporting sequencing date from 1973. This involved the sequencing of the Lac operator and its mRNA.
Another innovative solution for RNA sequencing is to perform reverse transcriptase PCR in which RNA is transcribed into DNA. using a special type of polymerase called DNA reverse transcriptase, cDNA is synthesized from mRNA. Learn more about RT PCR here: Reverse transcriptase PCR.
It is a genomic DNA sequencing method originally devised in the laboratory of Frederick Sanger in Cambridge in the late 1970s to sequence the first genomes of viruses. This method was popularized by Craig Venter for the sequencing of large genomes, in particular within the company Celera Genomics.